It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets
than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily
and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit
to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy
just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane
gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets
- spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy. TL;DR?
Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started. 1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong
binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third
outcome. If you hedged against the possibility
of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows: Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically
. In wallstreetbets
terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets? 2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise
! - the rate gets better
after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many
different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super
boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick
for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable
to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts. (3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA
. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated
legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps
. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money
. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt
. They're synthetic
because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more
profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in
instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that
exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling
CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying
CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can
take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly
taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
I have a habit of backtesting every strategy I find as long as it makes sense. I find it fun, and even if the strategy ends up being underperforming, it gives me a good excuse to gain valuable chart experience that would normally take years to gather. After I backtest something, I compare it to my current methodology, and usually conclude that mine is better either because it has a better performance or the new method requires too much time to manage (Spoiler: until now, I like this better)
During the last two days, I have worked on backtesting ParallaxFx
strategy, as it seemed promising and it seemed to fit my personality (a lazy fuck who will happily halve his yearly return if it means he can spend 10% less time in front of the screens). My backtesting is preliminary, and I didn't delve very deep in the data gathering. I usually track all sort of stuff, but for this first pass, I sticked to the main indicators of performance over a restricted sample size of markets.
Before I share my results with you, I always feel the need to make a preface that I know most people will ignore.
- I am words on your screen. You cannot trust me. I could have edited this or literally just typed random numbers on a spreadsheet. Do your own research if you want to trust my conclusion.
- Even if you trust me, you need to do backtesting for yourself. The goal of backtesting isn't simply to figure out whether a strategy has an edge: it's a way to get used to how the market flows (valuable experience you will bring on to any other strategy) and how the strategy behaves. You need to see it with your own eyes to allow your subconscious mind to be at ease when it comes time to trade it live: the only way to truly trust your strategy during a period of drawdown, is to have seen it work over hundreds of trades in the past.
I am not going to go into the strategy in this thread. If you haven't read the series of threads by the guy who shared it, go here
As suggested by my mentioned personality type, I went with the passive management
options of ParallaxFx's strategy. After a valid setup forms, I place two orders of half my risk. I add or remove 1 pip from each level to account for spread.
- The first at the 23.6 retracement.
- The second at the 38.2 retracement.
- Both orders have a stop loss at the 78.6 retracement.
- Both orders have the same target at the -100.0 extension.
- If price moves to the -38.2 extension, I delete any unfilled orders.
- I do not scale out, I do not move to breakeven, I place my orders and walk away.
I tested this strategy over the seven major currency pairs: AUDUSD, USDCAD, NZDUSD, GBPUSD, USDJPY, EURUSD, USDCHF. The time period started on January 1th 2018 and ended on July 1th 2020, so a 2.5 years backtest. I tested over the D1 timeframe, and I plan on testing other timeframes.
My "protocol" for backtesting is that, if I like what I see during this phase, I will move to the second phase where I'll backtest over 5 years and 28 currency pairs. Units of measure
I used R multiples to track my performance. If you don't know what they are, I'm too sleepy to explain right now. This
article explains what they are. The gist is that the results you'll see do not take into consideration compounding and they normalize volatility (something pips don't do, and why pips are in my opinion a terrible unit of measure for performance) as well as percentage risk (you can attach variable risk profiles on your R values to optimize position sizing in order to maximize returns and minimize drawdowns, but I won't get into that). Results
I am not going to link the spreadsheet directly, because it is in my GDrive folder and that would allow you to see my personal information. I will attach screenshots of both the results and the list of trades. In the latter, I have included the day of entry for each trade, so if you're up to the task, you can cross-reference all the trades I have placed to make sure I am not making things up.
Overall results: R Curve
and Segmented performance
List of trades: 1
. Something to note: I treated every half position as an individual trade for the sake of simplicity. It should not mess with the results, but it simply means you will see huge streaks of wins and losses. This does not matter because I'm half risk in each of them, so a winstreak of 6 trades is just a winstreak of 3 trades.
- Trades: 145
- Profit Factor: 2.34
- Return: 100.47 R
- Strike rate: 48.28%
- Average win: 2.51 R
- Average loss: -1.00 R
Nice. I'll keep testing. As of now it is vastly better than my current strategy.
Managers face a new challenge–managing a remote forex trader team with more and more Forex companies looking out for outsourcing. Events such as motivational tactics, task control and Communications still require a specialist approach even if this has been simplified using technology and a high-speed Internet. submitted by
The advantages of employing people on a distance are endless and make your competitive edge easy. Your company can help create a talented team of the best specialists in the market because you can not just hire people from everywhere in the world. This is why a remote employment type will continue to gain momentum in the future. It’s all the challenges that value it.
Remote job is very easy–output, autonomy and flexibility. You influence the manner you operate your team, the smoothness and achievement of the company procedures. And although most individuals still think that remote employees are not as productive as usual in office, the reality of the matter is that most remote employees actually see an increase in productivity equal to a complete additional working day.
So how do you efficiently handle a distant team? How can you contribute to its growth, commitment and coordination? Below are some tips that we have collected to assist you find the response.
TIP 1 – Maintain high performance
If your team scatters throughout the world, productivity can be impacted, unless certain measures are taken to keep it. It is not only difficult to say in a virtual environment how much time your staff spend on assignments and how successful they are, but also it is essential to be evident how the entire team handles the workload.
Therefore, it is essential that a business process is well thought-out and that several software tools are used. Training tools such as Toggl or Clockify can help you to really understand the processes underway, the amount of time spent on these projects, and the number of breaks taken in real time. This allows executives to identify the weaknesses of each worker and attempt to solve them.
This doesn’t imply that you need to overuse these applications and develop stringent procedures. If you work remotely, you are likely to choose this due to the flexibility it provides you. Managers need to strike a balance between liberty and coherent timescales for their staff.
For instance, they must decide which communication instruments they use to discuss issues of great significance–Chat with urgent subjects, Email with stuff to wait and Video Calls. Furthermore, all project information must be available to every member of the team (instruments like Google Drive and DropBox may assist). It must also ensure complete transparency and transparency.
They also need to bear in mind always that distant workers can all operate in distinct time zones, so that everyone can tune in to a video call, it is essential to discover a time window. Also, when employing persons, you need to ensure that your location time differences are not more than 3 hours from the time zone of your office. Due to time differences, for each conference you always have to have a very clear agenda and must stick to it.
Finally, you need to measure the yield to always have your hand on the pulse. Try to list all the main points in the work of each team member that indicate the performance. Set clear objectives with measurable outcomes so you can see clearly what is anticipated and how well your staff are responding to these expectations. Hold monthly reviews in the team to see how all people work together and whether everyone handles them properly.
However, do not be scared to give honest feedback, remember that individuals almost always concentrate more on beneficial than adverse points. This is why executives have to be frank and always attempt to discover something useful at the end.
TIP 2 – Strengthen communication skills
For each team, good communication between employees is essential, but for distant teams in particular. The absence of physical attendance and distinct working schedules can all lead your team members to operate as people instead of a united front.
Remote teams effectively need to interact twice if not three times the ordinary team. And executives must support these communications by creating more possibilities.
Set some of your team’s prompters. Say you always mark the time places if you are on your schedule for calls. Select and ensure your team uses the primary communication instruments. Implement instruments like Slack, WebEx and Skype and let your staff know that they are available all the time. Agree on the duration of an email reply so that you understand when to expect answers to your message.
Try as much as necessary to integrate video calls. IMCCAs have found that, when they actively use video conference instruments, 90% of remote personnel feel more linked with their team. Video enables your team to make a name face and bind better. When you see a individual, it’s always simpler to speak to than just by messaging.
Video calling helps your distant team feel moved and isolated less.
Share your screen with your team members to facilitate and clarify clarifications. Create distinct channels for sharing of interesting stuff, such as fun stories, suggestions for films or updates on TV shows that you all view.
Your purpose is to create a virtual environment that fosters and enhances
communication between your team.
TIP 3 – Engaging, Inspiring And Motivating
The main element of effective teamwork is motivation. Entrepreneur says company costs 450 to $550 billion per year in losses of productivity for an unmotivated or de-engaged employee.
Managers who work with remote teams have to invest in them and work hard every day to increase morality. In distant teams it is even more essential to build a powerful corporate culture than in the physical.
Begin with transparency, one of the basic elements of a driven team. You need to make sure that all of your team know precisely what the business is doing, its goals and its role. Share corporate news and updates, celebrate your own accomplishments and attempt to make your team feel real.
Be frank and let them know you as their leader. Discuss yourselves with them and share your private vision. Describe the stuff you handle at the moment, so they know that you do as difficult as you do. Request your advice on various issues and opinions.
Be in keeping with feedback and with your praise in particular. Don’t just ask them to do a nice job, but to highlight certain accomplishments and duties. In corporate public chats, try also to praise your distant staff for their accomplishments throughout the whole business.
Create your team’s rituals and traditions. Celebrate the birthdays and unique occasions of your distant staff. Why doesn’t every team member ask for a brief video that you wish to edit later and send to your partner celebrating?
Improve camaraderie with true private communication through investments at least once a year in corporate retreats where your distant team can meet in reality.
Find out more here about motivating your team.
TIP 4 – Select your team with wisely
Hiring individuals with the correct distance to work is your halfway to achievement. It’s all about everything else. You can also influence your entire team with a lazy or unprofessional distant worker. This is why certain precautions are essential during the recruitment process.
First and foremost, nobody claims you have to employ the individual from the beginning. Test your skills and abilities for a number of months by employing them part-time and giving them the opportunity to work long term when you’re sure they’re a nice addition to your staff.
Don’t be stingy with salaries. Just because your employee is working remotely doesn’t mean that they aren’t doing more than your typical office worker does. In most cases, remote workers are actually doing more, so their salaries have to reflect this.
Make sure your fresh remote staff can function from home. Do you have a good working environment where you can concentrate without distractions? Otherwise, it may be better to propose either paying for co-working space or buying equipment to build that room at home for them.
Take into consideration that your staff can all come from distinct nations and cultures. Learn how to talk obviously and broadly convey your message. Ask your team in their message to use easy phrases and a neutral tone. Maintain a calendar of all global holidays affecting and planning your team members.
Make sure fresh staff are quick to retire. Create a guide with all the primary information about your job and the instruments you use. Ask your team members to share their finest advice on remote working. Recall the faster the better they adjust.
Managing distance teams can be challenging, but actually you can create a skilled, loyal, hard-working team with a few simple rules to assist your company to succeed.
- Fragile five to Fastest growing economy - India
- 11th largest to the 5th largest economy - India
- Share of world GDP from 2.43% in 2014 to 3.08% in 2018
- Average GDP 7.3% against 6.7% in previous regime
- Forex reserves from 300 bn USD in 2014 to 420 bn USD in 2018
- Doubling of FDI inflow from 36 bn USD in 2014 to 66 billion USD in 2018
- Inflation less than 2.3 % (Nov 18) against 10.1% in 2014
- Growth of sensex from 24,121.74 in 2014 to 36,395.03 on 12 Feb 19 (50.88%)
- Fiscal deficit under control
- Per capita income increased by 45% from Rs 86,647 in 2014 to Rs 1,25,397
- IT exemption from 2 lakh in 2014 to 5 lakh (effectively 9.85 lakh with home loan)
- Restaurant bills tax reduced from 18% in 2014 to 5%
- Transaction charges through card down from 1% to 0%, domestic money transfer fee down from Rs 5 in 2014 to zero
- Financial inclusion (32 crore bank accounts with 260 billion worth deposits). Almost 100% coverage from earlier 50%
- DBT (savings of 83000 crores @ 15000 crore annually), No of govt schemes DBT applied to increased from 34 in 2014 to 433, 2.7 lakh fake mid-day meal students, 3.3 crore fake LPG connections, 87 lakh fake MNREGA job cards, 3 crore fake ration cards eliminated
- Zero IT for businesses with turnover upto 60 lakhs
- GST exemplifying cooperative federalism, rates of 83 items down from pre-GST rates, out of 1211 items only 35 items in above 18% slab, 39% reduction of cost of basic household items. Average 1 lk crore monthly revenue through GST collection. Exempted for business upto 40 lk
- Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, constitution of NCLT, 3 lakh crores of NPAs recovered, 66 cases resolved, 260 cases liquidated, resolution of stressed assets, 2100 companies pay back 83000 crore to banks settling their pending loan repayments
- 75 billion $ or Yen to Rupee exchange agreement with Japan
- 1 lakh shell companies deregistered, FCRA licenses of 4800 NGOs cancelled
- Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, properties of economic fugitives seized and auctioned
- 1.9 lakh km of rural roads. Rural road connectivity at 91% from 55%
- 36 new airports, from 65 in 7 decades to 106, all states now in air connectivity map
- Effective international diplomacy following 59 visits to nations, 38 single, 10 double, 3 triple and 2 quadruple visits by PM.(Seen during Airstrikes,No Country opposed India)
- Benami Act for action against Money Laundering
- Rural sanitation coverage 95 % up from 39% (8.8 crore toilets)
- Solar energy capacity increased 8 fold from 2.63 GW to 22 GW, 19. 8.5 GW of biogas grid installed.
- Ganga waterway transportation, usage by shipping giant Maersk, cost of transportation reduced from 10/ton (road) / Rs 6/ton (rail) to Re 1/ton
- More than 2.4 crore households lit up, rural electricity coverage to households up from 70 to 95%, only 19836 homes remain (in Chhatisgarh) out of 2,48,09,235
- Electricity accessibility rank jump from 99 in 2014 to 26 in 2019
- 7 crore new gas connections to 3.5 crore households u/69000 conections per day, coverage 90% from 55%, 82% return for refill, 42% beneficiaries Dalits
- 14.4 crore mudra loans worth Rs 7 lakh crore disbursed
- 18000 remote villages connected with electricity
- 2.92 lakh km of optical fibre laid, 0.02% to 50% gram Panchayat connectivity
- Swachh bharat mission has saved, according to WHO, 3 lakh lives and will save 1.5 lakh lives per year.
- IT filers increase from 3.79 crore to 6.08 crore, enterprises registered for indirect tax up from 64 lk to 118 lakh
- Entry of India in global regimes Missile Technology Control regime (MTCR), WA (Wassenaar Arrangement) and Australia Group
- 17 crore soil health cards
- 1.5 crore houses built, 91.37 crore in rural areas and 13.5 lakh in urban areas against 25 lakh houses built between 2010-2014. House for all target year is 2022.
- 1,78,346 houses built in NE over existing 2875 houses built till 2014
- Home loan interest rate down from 10.3 % in 2014 to 8.4% in 2018, annual savings of Rs 47,160 for 30 lakhs over 30 years, no GST on affordable housing, 5% on remaining
- Trading agreement in rupee with Iran and UAE
- Common service centres up from 84k to 3 Lakh
- OROP implemented after 43 years, 35000 crores disbursed to 8 crore veterans
- India's vaccination programme Indradhanush amongst 12 best practices of world
- 5035 Jan Aushadhi and - 1054 medicines under price control (60-90% discounts).
- More than 150 Amrit stores, reduction of cost of cromium cobalt Knee implant from 1.58-2.5 lakh to 54,720 and high flex implant from Rs181728 to 56490 (69%), 85% reduction in cardiac stent price to Rs 28000
- 87% reduction in 400 cancer drugs
- Rate of Interest on higher education loans dropped from 14.75 in 2013 to 10.88% in 2019, savings of 1.18 lakh on 10 lakh loan over tenure of 60 months, Rs 2000 savings on EMI
- Data revolution: Cost of 1 GB $0.26 in India against $12.37 in US, $6.66 in UK and $75.2 in Zimbabwe. Unlimited mobile+ 45 Gb data = Rs 150 against Rs 1000 in 2013; annual savings of 10,200
- Katra rail line work completed after 16 years
- Dhola Sadiya bridge work completed after 16 years
- Sardar Sarovar Dam work completed after 15 years
- Aadhaar act
- Pakyong airport completed after 10 years
- Chennai Nashri Tunnel after 10 years
- Assam NRC after 40 years
- National War Memorial after 50 years
- NE cpas after 60 years
- Kollam bypass after 43 years
- Indo-Bangladesh enclaves after 42 years
- Bansagar canal project after 40 years
- Bogibeel bridge after 23 years
- Western peri expressway after 15 years
- Kota Chambal bridge after 11 years
- Maibang-Lumding Stretch completed
- Delhi Meerut Expressway completed
- Ganga Expressway project (world's longest) underway
- Metros in Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow, Washermenpet
- All umanned level crossings eliminated
- Ayushman Bharat: annual 5 lakh health care to every family, 15.05 lakh hospital admissions for secondary/ tertiary treatment, 2.4 crore e-cards generated as on 10 Mar 19 in 170 days. Target 50 crore people.
- 59minutes loan portal: 92,000 loan applications of MSME amounting to 30,000 crores approved, 6000 crores sanctioned till Nov 18
- 87% of farming house (owning land of 2 hctrs) or 12 cr ppl to get kisaan sammaan nidhi of Rs 6000 pr year. Rs 5215 cr transferred directly to 2.6 crore farmers in 37 days (for households with holding less than 0.01 hectares incm per month so far was Rs 8136 agnst exp of 6594
- 1.5 million electric rickshaws
- Procurement of 36 Rafale on Government to Government Basis avoiding middlemen
- 05 billion$ S 400 Triumf air defence missile system deal with Russia
- 145 M777 howitzer deal
- 22 Apache AH 64E multi-role combat helos
- 200 KA-226T helicopters
- 56 EADS CASA C-295 transport aircraft
- 15 CH 47 Chinook tactical transport helicopters
- 2.3 lakh Bullet proof jackets
- 1.6 lakh Bullet-proof helmets
- 777 mn USD Barak 8 LRSAM contract
- 5 bn USD S-400 air defence systems
- 10 Heron TP armed drones
- 4 additional P8I MR aircraft
- 40 units of Laser sensor border fence installed
- 72,400 Sig Sauer Assault rifles
- 100 self-propelled K9 Vajra howitzers
- 700000 AK-103 Kalashnikov assault rifles indigenous facility
- Surgical strikes in Myanmar, across LoC and in Pakistan. Only Country to bomb a Nuclear Powered Country
- 240 million visitors at Kumbh Mela 2019, cost 4236 crores @ Rs 177 per tourist, revenue 1.2 Lakh crores
- 833 teraflop supercomputer Param Shivay by IIT BHU at Rs 32.5 crores
- Divisional status to Ladakh
- 470 bed ESIC hospital in Ennore
- 100 bed ESIC hospital in Tiruppur
- Namami Gange - Ganga is 30% cleaner, 83 out of 97 ganga towns and 4456 villages achieved ODF status, 08 out of 16 drains emptying 16 crore l sewage into Ganga tapped. Target date Mar 2020
- 5,45,122 ODF villages, 598 ODF districts, 27 ODF states/ villages
- RERA implementation
- Udaan scheme - flight cost down from Rs 5000/1000 km in 2013 to 3400/1000 km in 2018, 34 airports operationalised, small towns connected, all states on aerial
- Preventive conservation of 39275570 folios, curative conservation of 3656863 filios, digitisation of 2.83 lakh manuscripts consisting of 2.93 crore pages
- India is now world's largest 2-wheeler manufacturer, 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer (94% of mobiles sold now made in India), 4th largest automaker, 2nd largest steel producer
- 5100 m Mandvi Bridge in Goa in 3.5 years
- Ease of doing Business ranking jump from 134 in 2014 to 77 in 2019
- Therubali - Singapur Bridge No 588
- Restoration of Asurgarh Fort, Kalahandi
- GeM portal with 731431 product categories, 180,862 registered sellers and 32114 govt buyers
- 10% EWS reservation
- 40% of ongoing 700 NH projects completed, adding 40,039 km between 2014-18 against 91,287 km between 1947-2014
- Highway construction rate jumped from 12 km/day in 2014 to 27 km/day in 2019
- 101 terrorists and 11 offenders extradited
- 90,000 ex-partite Indians evacuated
- Chabahar port, Sittwe port and Duqm port
- Military installation in Seychelles
- International logistics agreements with US, France and Singapore
- Work underway on 25 MLD ZLD Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Gujarat Eco Textile Park and will save 25 million litres of water per day
- Beautification of 65 railway stations, all stations fitted with LED lights, wi-fi, multi-brand food centres, kiosks, executive lounges, lifts (445 from 97 in 2014), escalators (603 from 199 in 2014), travellators and ramps
- Record number of foot over bridges built
- 871 new train services
- 180 new rail lines
- Dedicated railway freight corridor - 2 sections completed
- 100% electrification of railways underway, first solar powered railway station (Guwahati). First solar powered train (world's second), savings of Rs 40 Lakhs and 90,000 ltrs diesel per year
- Make in India semi-high-speed trains - Tejas, Gatiman and Vande Bharat
- Humsafar and Antodaya trains, Deen Dayalu and Anubhuti coaches, UDAY double decker, glass dome Vistadome coaches
- Project Swarn and Project Utkrisht to upgrade Rajdhani/Shatabdi and Mail/Express respectively
- Largest coach production in world at ICF, Chennai
- No more human extreta on railway tracks. Installation of 1.37 lakh out of 2.5 lakh completed in Jun 18.
- 400 wi-fi railway stations (Aug 18)
- 80% reduction in rail accidents
- 10 high speed rail corridors underway, target date 2025-26
- Export of world class customised coaches from MCF, Rae Bareli
- LIC and Air India register profit
- 2300 km rail tracks constructed, speed jumped from 4.1 km/day in 2014 to 6.53 km/day in 2018
- Neem coating of urea
- Gokul mission - record 160 million ton milk production
- Online availability of CBSE and NCERT books
- 10 crore LED bulbs distributed, 5000 crore savings
- Investment in urban infrastructure jumped from 157703 crores to 795500 crores
- Statue of Unity to commemorate Iron Man of India
- Rs 2509 crore sales in Khadi
- 482.36 million digital transactions worth Rs 74,978 crores in Oct 2018 against 0.3 million transactions worth Rs 90 crores in Nov 2016
- 30% increase in ATMs, 208% increase of PoS machines from 10.81 lakh in May 14 to 33.32 lakh in Aug 18, 111% increase in credit cards from 1.94 crore in May 14 to 4.10 crore in Aug 18, 144% increase in debit cards from 40.17 crore to 98.02 crore
- Ease of Doing Business Index 142 (2014) to 100 (2018)
- Ease of getting electricity index 99 (2014) to 26 (2018)
- UN's e-govt index 118 (2014) to 97(2018)
- Globalisation index 112 to 107 (2018)
- Innovation index 76 to 60 (2018)
- Competitiveness index 71 to 39
- Logistics performance index 54 to 35
- Global peace index 141 to 137
- DBR ranking 100 to 77
- India ranks 3rd in global start up ecosystem
- 06 crore jobs in MSME sector based on CII data
- 448 million formal jobs based on EPFO, NPS and PPF data
- 10 crore jobs in entrepreneurship via mudra and other schemes
- 80% increase in tax payers, 51.3 % increase in gross tax revenue
- Black Money report card - Voluntary income declaration scheme (Rs 65250 crore), IT search and survey operations (35,460 crore), Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(5000 crore), Benami transactions Act (4300 crore), Black Money and Imposition of Tax Act (4100 crore)
160 Rs 6000 financial assiatence for pregnant women
161/1 . Sagarmala: port capacity increase from 8 to 14.7 lakh ton, cargo up from 89 to 116 MMT 8 new national waterways including ganga waterway NW-1 and Brahmaputra waterway NW-2.
161/2. domestic cruise service between Mumbai and Goa, ro-ro services on Ghoga-Dahej reducing travel distance from 294 to 31 km
161/3. New international cruise terminals at Chennai and Goa, railway line between Haridaspur and Paradip underway, LNG import terminal at Kamarajar port, Oil berth ai Jawahar Dweep,Coal berth at Mangalore port
161/4 . deep draft Iron ore berth at Paradip berth, JNPT SEZ, Kandla and Paradip smart industrial port city, largest dry dock and international ship repair facility at CSL, modernisation of 17 fishing harbours
- 800 km Delhi-Mumbai Expressway underway
- Replacement of bio-toilets with upgraded vacuum bio toilets in trains underway. Order for 500 placed on experimental basis.
- No terror strikes in hinterland
- 103 new KVs
- 62 new Navodaya Vidyalayas
- 6 new IITs against 16 in previous 57 years
- 6 new IIMs against 13 in previous 57 years
- 7 IIITs against 7 in previous 57 years
- 02 new IISER
- 12 new AIIMS against 7 in previous 57 years.
- 141 new universities against 30 in previous 57 years
- 01 new NIT
- Life Insurances @ Rs 12 annual and @ Rs 12 monthly premiums
- Atal Pension Yojana
- Pension to 42 crore people of unorganised sector
- Ambedkar memorial
- BHIM application for digital payments
- Khelo India Initiative for tracking of athletes' development, Rs 5 lk per annum scholarship for 1000 budding athletes per year for eight years each; monthly Rs 50000 out-of -pocket exptr, 2000 PETs, salary cap of coaches doubled from Rs 1-2 lk per month, target 15 yrs
- Special Task Force for Olympics
- RERA Act
- Bullet train maiden project
182/1. Rs 6.92 lakh crore Bharatmala project, 44 economic corridors with 9000 km road, 2000 km port connectivity, 9000km roads to connect district HQs with NH,
182/2. 2000 km road with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, opening up of 185 choke points, road development to char dham, 12 greenfield expressways spanning 1900 km
- 36 murtis retrieved and brought back to India in 2014-2019 under India Pride Project against 02 between 2000-2013, 02 in 90s, 03 in 80s, 01 in 70s and nil in 50s and 60s
- Unemployment rate 3.8% against 13.8 % in 2013
- India is a less-cash society now
- Develpment of Trincomalee and Columbo port while checkmating China's Hambantota by taking operations of near by (15 km away) Mattala Rajapaksha International Airport
- Plugging the 'double taxation avoidance' black money loophole through a new tax agreement with Mauritius
- Deal with Switzerland for automatic tax data sharing from 01 Jan 2019
189/1 Varanasi - Varanasi ring road phase 1 completed, phase 2 underway, inland waterways terminal, Babatpur airport highway, 140 MLD Dinaput STP, facelift to railway station, big cow shelter for stray cattle, BPO centre, piped gas project, Varanasi-Balia rail project,
189/2. Vande Bharat Express, Kashi Vishwanath temple - Ganga Ghat corridor project, renovation of all bathings ghats, LED illuminations of ghats and major roads, underground electricity cabling,
189/3. new sewage plants, 02 cancer treatment facilities, 65th to 29th rank in swachhata sarvekshan (2016), 90% ODF district.
- Creation of 100 Smart cities, 100 crore per year per city for 05 years, 500 acres for retrofitting, 50 acres for redevelopment, 250 acres for green field projects, 10% of energy from renewable resources, 80% of green building construction, special purpose vehicles.
191/1 Development of 500 AMRUT cities underway, urbanization project of rejuvenation and transformation which includes beach front development, prevention of beach erosion, improvement of water supply, replacement of pipelines,
191/2. New sewerage connections, greenery and open spaces, digital and smart facilities, e-governance, LED streetlights, public transport, storm water drainage projects in a phased manner, Target date 2022
- Increase in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in 104 BBBP (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao) districts, anti-natal care registration in 119 districts and institutional deliveries in 146 out of total 640 districts as in Mar 18. CSR of Haryana increased from 871 to 914.
- International Yoga Day
- Aspirational Districts Programme: 115 'backward' districts placed under 'prabharis' and for competitive development on the basis of 49 performance indicators, target year 2022.
195/1. Make in India: 16.4 lakh crore investment committments, 1.5 lakh crore investment inquiries, 60 bn USD FDI, 26 sectors covered, 23 positions jump in World Bank's Doing Business Report (DBR), 32 places in WEF's Global Competitiveness Index (GCI),
195/2 19 places in Logistics Performance Index, 42 places in Ease of Doing Business index, schemes include Bharatmala, Sagarmala, dedicate freight corridors, industrial corridors, UDAN-RCS, Bharat Broadband Network, Digital India.
- 251 Passport Seva Kendras (PSKs) and Post Office Passport Seva kendras (POPSKs) against 77 till 2014, target of one PSK every 50 km across India.
- Unanimous election of Justice Dalveer Bhandari to ICJ forcing UK to pull out own nominee Christopher Greenwood, demonstrating India's clout in international arena.
- India Post Payments Bank: India's biggest banking outreach with 1.55 lakh post offices (2.5 times banking network) linked to IPPB system
- Philip Kotler award, Seoul Peace prize, Champion of the Earth Award, Grand Collar of the State of Palestine, Amir Abdulla Khan Award, King Abdulaziz Sash award, Amir Amanullah Khan award.
- 1900 gifts and memorabilia received by Modi auctioned and 11.7 crores added to Namami Gange fund, 1.4 c of Seoul Peace award also to Nammami Gange.
- Removal of article 370 and thereby also 35a after several decades.
- Giving citizenship to persecuted minorities in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan through passing of CAA.
- Trust for creation of Ram Mandir underway.
- Abolishment of Haj subsidy.
- Abolishment and criminalization of instant triple talak.
- Deal with Bodo community.
- Getting Maulana Masood Azhar listed as an UN designated terrorist.
Source - https://www.reddit.com/IndiaRWResources/comments/bgkus6/200_achievements_of_modi_govt/
List more achievements in the comment section and lets make the list bigger, a big thank you to our fallen kar sevak u/Alive_Firefighter
I joined this thread a few weeks ago. I thought it was a place where real traders hangout and actually learn from each other. Learning forex is not just strategy and psychology. I've learnt people here got a fixed state of mind about risk management and money management. Whereas I have been consistent with 10%, I have friends who trade 20%, 30% and as little as 5%.
Some who take the whole move and others who take whatever ago.
I would ask why, and they all reply,"My risk management."
What could be a learning moment always turns into an exchange of nasty conversation. My very memorable "nemesis" who told me I need to be saved, I'm too far gone, etc, also bragged he has been trading profitably for 2 years. He recently posted how he is depressed about trading and is actually afraid of the markets. hasn't trade for months now and when he did, it was only for 5 months.
Most of them are computer science and Finance students. They are quick to tell every newbie how they need such background to be succesful taders. Here's the kicker. Only one trader in my circle has a C.S background. All the others have A Bachelors of Obsession and Perseverance. Of course there are very few cool finance and CS students here. No beef.
At the end of the day, I'm only human. And these conversation, at the very least trigger a conversation. At the most annoys me. I know scalpers and swingers and I treat them equally. at the end of the day they are all securing the bag. I'm nice to them, so at the end of the day they drop me a nugget.
- The dude who turns 200 to 250k in under a month. "Dude, Icmarkets is great. but after opening with 200$, split that into ten accounts. and if you go bust then you have only lost 20."
- A 100 lots guy,"if you loose 3 trades in a row, go back to demo."
- my homeboy rockstar trader, I would call him up like yo I just had the biggest week ever, I.m 50% up. and he's like, withdraw and go treat yourself. It took me 2 years before my first withdrawal. you've made it in a year. And, I'm like," but I'm trynna compound.."
- And he's like,"At the very least open an extra account."
These look like simple remarks but mix em with your strategy and they take you a step further, control greed, give you a chance to stop and refine your strategy, Give you a chance to come back after a blown account, I could go on and on. there is so much I've learnt even from mediocre traders with flashy lifestyle on IG.
Now I just mentioned a guy who trades the 1 min and make 80-100+% per trade. instead of someone asking me how's that possible? Have you seen his Myfxbook? No He went on about how that's pure bullshit. Now my personality trait, I would wanna answer him that I have actually seen his myfxbook and that is how i actually keep track of each %age.
So basically this thread has consumed my time online and offline and in some way affected my trading. I remember closing a trade at 10 pips profit just so my account would be a solid 30 something %, when I was positive that the trade had higher chances of reaching 45 pips, I just didnt wanna risk the propbable chance of it reversing to my SL. so that i could sshot and post it to the few haters and non believers that I had earned in this thread. Now look at this, With the cute sshot I was 30%+ up, but without it and the haters, I would've been about 70% up that.
Whereas I had myself and my few trading friends who I actually reach out to ask questions. now I had a bunch of people to convince that there actually is money in forex. Even when I'm not online I find myself thinking about this thread. Wanting to come online to answer a few question or just read some posts.
I have caught myself checking this page first before starting my backtesting. we all know how a quick check can turn into minutes on the internet. I'd come online and see a "pro trader" telling a newbie how he needs a Finance or C.S background to succeed in this field, if not just foget about it. And these replies are always delivered with a touch of arrogance that makes me go like wtf?! and i would jump in and reply.
More power to those who can manage being apart of a toxic group. I have managed to help a few who reached out to me from this group but that's that. As for me I can manage the negative energy and trade and run a super productive life.
Anyways, I'm one strike away from a perma ban for posting profits. So...yeah
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